History of Title IX
Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was written in order to end discrimination in various fields based on religion, race, color, or national origin, in the area of employment the Act also prohibited gender discrimination.A prohibition on gender discrimination in public education and federally assisted programs was not found in the 1964 Act but passage of the 1964 Act energized the women's rights movement, which had somewhat slowed after women's suffrage in 1920.While TitleIX is best known for its impact on high school and collegiate athletics, the original statute made no explicit mention of sports.
In 1967 President Lyndon Johnson sent a series of executive orders in order to make some clarifications. Before these clarifications were made, the National Organization for Women (NOW) persuaded President Johnson to include women in his executive orders.Most notable is Executive Order 11375, which required all entities receiving federal contracts to end discrimination on the basis of sex in hiring and employment.
In 1969 Bernice Sandler used the executive order to help her fight for her job at the University of Maryland.She used university statistics showing how female employment at the university had plummeted as qualified women were replaced by men.Sandler brought her complaints to the Department of Labor's Office for Federal Fair Contracts Compliance where she was encouraged to file a formal complaint. Citing inequalities in pay, rank, admissions and much more, Sandler began to file complaints not only against the University of Maryland but numerous other colleges as well. Working in conjunction with NOW and Women's Equity Action League(WEAL), Sandler filed 269complaints against colleges and universities.
In 1970 Sandler joined Representative Edith Green'sSubcommittee on Higher Education of the Education and Labor Committee and sat in on the congressional hearings where women's rights were discussed. It was in the congressional hearings that Green and Sandler first proposed TitleIX. An early draft was authored by Representative Patsy Mink, with the assistance of Representative Green.In the hearing there was very little mention of athletics.Their focus was more specifically on the hiring and employment practices of federally financed institutions. The proposed TitleIX created lots of buzz and gained a lot of support.
Source - Wikipedia
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